Middle East

Türkiye (Turkey)

Türkiye

Türkiye is a new official name of Turkey. Türkiye is a modern secular state that arose on the historical and cultural basis of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires.

Popular destinations in Türkiye

Ankara
The Capital
Alanya
City

Top places and attractions in Türkiye

Tower in Alanya
The Red Tower
Fortress in Alanya
The Alanya Fortress

Türkiye on map

The TOP 20 most popular places of Türkiye are displayed on the map. Show all

Overview

Istanbul, Turkey

Turkey is located simultaneously in Europe and Asia, with most of its territory located in Asia and a smaller part in Europe. These parts are separated by the Dardanelles Strait, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus Strait, which form a water corridor connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Black Sea.

Turkey has a developed industry, agriculture, a high level of education, international trade, and it is also one of the most developed tourist countries in the world.

History

Side, Turkey

Turkey is a country with a rich cultural and historical foundation. Once you have visited the sites of ancient ruins, you can see how deep the trace that was left by the great civilizations that once reigned here is.

The most important historical milestones in the development of Turkey date back to the Paleolithic and Neolithic times. Around the 3rd century BC, the Babylonians founded city-states here, which united into the Hittite kingdom. The Hittites declined in the 12th and 11th centuries BC, and were replaced by the Lycian culture. Troy was an important center of civilization at that time, and after the Trojan War, the Greek colonization of Anatolia took place. At about the same time, the Lydians, who occupied the western territories, flourished. The Lydian era in the history of Anatolia ended before it had even begun. The whole of Anatolia fell under the control of the Persian Empire. Alexander the Great's campaign marked a new milestone in history. After his death, Alexander's vast empire began to be divided into parts by the diadochi. This was followed by the Roman Era – 300 years of peace and prosperity in Anatolia. It was replaced by the Byzantine era, but the Turkic Seljuk tribe established its rights here after winning the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After this battle, the Seljuks formed the Rum Sultanate, which occupied almost the entire territory of Anatolia, except for the extreme west. This is how Islam came to Anatolia.

At about the same time, the power of the Ottomans grew, who conquered Byzantine and Greek cities and waged wars in the Balkans. The Ottomans surrounded Constantinople, which had been on the defensive for a long time. The Ottoman Empire rose and flourished in the 13th century, but by 1826 it had come to an end. The Ottoman claims to Europe ended with the Battle of Vienna in 1683 and the Ottomans began to suffer losses in the Balkans. In the end, the Ottoman Empire fell. National movements appeared on the remains of the Ottoman Empire, which were led by the military led by Mustafa Kemal. On May 19, 1919, he arrived at the port of Samsun, this day is considered the beginning of the War of Independence and is now celebrated in Turkey as a national holiday.

On October 29, 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed with its capital in Ankara, with Mustafa Kemal as president. At that time, there were no surnames in Turkey, and in 1934, when they were introduced, the parliament officially assigned Mustafa Kemal the surname Ataturk, which means "father of the Turks". Radical reforms have begun in the country, which have led to the existence of modern Turkey as we know and love it.

Flag

The national flag of Turkey

A white five–pointed star and a crescent moon on a bright red background are symbols of the modern Turkish flag. The red color on local banners appeared back in the days of the Arab Caliphate, and was later approved as the official color of flags for secular departments. The crescent moon and the star symbolize Islam.

Language

The official language of Turkey is Turkish. The radical changes introduced by the Turkish government in 1928 also affected the language – it was decided to completely switch from Arabic spelling to Latin. This is how the modern Turkish alphabet appeared.

Capital

Ankara, Turkey

Ankara is the capital of Turkey. For many centuries, the capital of the state was the multifaceted Istanbul, a city located on two continents, built by the Greek ruler Constantine. Until the end of the 19th century, Ankara was an ordinary provincial city. The Romans built it on the Anatolian Hill. The Romans named the city Ankaria, which later transformed into Ankara, which became the capital in 1923.

Cities

Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul, Izmir, Mardiz, Erzurum, Ankara, Trabzon, Bursa, Eskisehir, Van, Safranbolu – here is a small list of cities in Turkey that will be interesting to any category of travelers, whether sightseeing, exploring history and architecture, immersion in local flavor.

Sultanahmet Square, Istanbul

The coast of Turkey is represented by resort towns: Kemer, Belek, Marmaris, Alanya, Antalya, Bodrum, Dalaman, Fethiye, Side, Cesme, Oludeniz – all of them are saturated with tourist infrastructure and attractions.

National currency

The Turkish lira is the monetary unit of Turkey. It was introduced on October 29, 1923. 1 lira = 100 kurush. ISO 4217 codes: TRY (949). Characters: ₺ • TL

Religion

Ankara's Kocatepe Mosque

Turkey has been a secular country since the time of Ataturk. There are no laws here that oblige anyone to observe Sharia. Islamic law is important only for sincere believers. The state and religion in Turkey are completely separated. Nevertheless, when you are in Turkey, you will always hear the singing of muezzins calling Muslims to prayer. And the Islamic holidays of Ramadan and Eid al-Adha are national.

The majority of Muslims in Turkey are Sunnis. Arabic has been partially replaced by Turkish in worship services.

Geography

Turkey is mainly represented by mountainous terrain, where powerful ridges surround the inner plateau, and narrow plains occupy the territory on the periphery. The topography is dominated by the Pontic Mountains (the Kure and Ilgaz ranges), which stretch along the coast in an easterly direction. The Anatolian plateau occupies the central part of the country. The relief is diversified by volcanic cones with frozen lava flows.

Climate

Avanos, Turkiye

The climate in Turkey is represented by five zones: more than half of the country's territory is located in the subtropical Mediterranean climate zone, with hot summers and warm winters. In the area of the western regions of the Anatolian Highlands, the climate is more continental, and towards the center of the country and the area around Lake Van it is distinctly continental. Precipitation peaks in these areas in autumn and spring. The territory of the mountains of Eastern Anatolia has a pronounced temperate mountain climate with large temperature differences during the day.

The Black Sea coast belongs to the transition zone from a temperate to a subtropical climate. The Aegean and Mediterranean coasts are dominated by a subtropical Mediterranean climate with dry and hot summers and warm, humid winters.

Attractions

Cappadocia, Turkey

Turkey is rich in tourist attractions for every taste – unique natural formations, historical monuments, rare beauty of architecture – all this makes the country very attractive for travelers. The most famous sights of Turkey:

Natural attractions of Turkey

Pamukkale, Hierapolis and Cleopatra's Pool

Cappadocia and Fairy fireplaces

Mount Takhtali and Ararat

Duden Waterfalls

Ruins and excavations

The ancient city of Ephesus

Excavations of the city of Troy

The ancient city of Perge

The ancient city of Aspendos

Istanbul

Topkapi Palace

The Basilica Cistern

Istanbul Archaeological Museum

Maiden Tower

Side

Temples of Apollo and Athens

Amphitheater and Archaeological Museum in Side

Manavgat Waterfall

Kemer

Chimera Mountain

Alanya

Demre, Mira, Kekova

The City of Peace and the Church of St. Nicholas

Kekova city, underwater ruins

Resorts

Ölüdeniz, Fethiye/Muğla, Türkiye

The attractiveness of Turkey for a holiday resort is explained by its extraordinary geographical location: the country is washed by four seas at once – the Mediterranean, the Aegean, the Black and the Marmara. The beach season on the Mediterranean coast lasts from April to November.

The most popular resort destinations in Turkey are the Mediterranean coast, where the cities of Alanya, Antalya, Kemer and Side are located. The Aegean coast is represented by the resorts of Bodrum, Marmaris, Fethiye and Dalaman. The Black Sea Riviera includes Trabzon, Samsun, Hopu, Rize.

How to get

Istanbul Airport (IST)

International airports such as Sabiha Gokcen (Istanbul), Istanbul New (Istanbul), Antalya Airport (Antalya), Esenboga Airport (Ankara), Adnan Menderes Airport (Izmir) provide air passenger services in Turkey.

National airlines of Turkey: Turkish Airlines, AtlasGlobal, Pegasus Airlines.

National holidays in 2023 in Turkey

Most holidays in Turkey have fixed dates according to the Gregorian calendar. Only the religious holidays Eid Al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha do not have a clear date, their dates are determined by the lunar calendar. Postponement of weekends in Turkey is not provided by law. If the holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, then no additional days off are usually scheduled. In this case, the decision on the appointment of days off can be made by the heads of organizations or enterprises.

In Turkey, there are no official days off for some Islamic holidays, as in other Muslim countries. These are the holidays: "Isra and Miraj", "Arafat Day", the Islamic New Year — Al-Hijri, the Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad.

January 1 – New Year

April 23 – National Sovereignty and Children's Day

May 1 – Labor and Solidarity Day

April 23-25 – Eid Al-Fitr (end of Ramadan)

May 19 – Ataturk Day, Youth and Sports Day

July 15 is the Day of Democracy and National Unity

June 29 – July 2 Eid al-Adha

August 30 is Victory Day

October 28-29 is the Day of the Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey

Interesting facts about Turkey

Balat, Fatih/İstanbul, Türkiye

The highest peak in Turkey, the Great Ararat, has a height of 5165 m. Johann Friedrich Parrott became the first person in history to climb Ararat. The ascent took place in 1829, and since then the peak has been considered conquered.

The mausoleum in Helikarnassus and the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus are two of the seven wonders of the world, located in Turkey.

Nicholas the Wonderworker was born in Patara (Turkey).

Istanbul is located on two continents at the same time.

Turkey ranks first in the world in the production of hazelnuts, cherries, figs, apricots, quinces and poppies, second in the production of melons, watermelon, cherries, cucumbers, carob and chickpeas, third in the production of mandarin and apples and fourth in the production of pistachios, strawberries, chestnuts, walnuts and lentils.

The flaming Chimera Rocks are a unique natural phenomenon in Turkey, where an eternal flame burns from the ground. The place is located in the village of Chirali, 40 km from Kemer.

The Seven Churches of the Apocalypse: a tourist route that passes through all seven temples mentioned in the Revelation of John the Theologian. These are: Ephesus, Pergamum, Thyatira, Izmir, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea.

National cuisine

Traditional Turkish sweets

Turkish cuisine is diverse and rich. Notes of Arab customs, Mediterranean motifs, the basics of Balkan cooking and Turkic culture are reflected in traditional dishes and drinks that are definitely worth trying when visiting Turkey. The true taste of Turkey is in its national cuisine, be sure to try it:

Turkish kebab is a large "family" of meat dishes. Iskander kebab is thinly sliced lamb with small pieces of flatbread in tomato sauce, with melted butter and sour cream. Spicy lovers will appreciate adana kebab - peppered minced meat on a spit. Shish kebab is made from lamb, served with tomatoes and sweet peppers. Doner kebab is a classic and the most popular in any establishment in Turkey.

Chig kefte is another kind of kebab, meatballs. Kefte is fried, boiled, baked, browned on the grill.

Bureck is almost any pastry, usually unsweetened. There are pies, chebureks, the famous street food cigar burecs.

Lukum, nougat, halva, lokma, tulumba, b aklava – the range of Turkish sweets is incredible, but baklava is the prima here! If you have a sweet tooth, then it won't be easy to pull you away from the candy store – all these little sweet things are not only delicious, but surprisingly photogenic.

Kokorech is lamb giblets fried on a spit: a hearty and spicy dish, a classic of Turkish fast food

Simit is the world famous crispy bagel. In every city in Turkey, simit has its own unique taste and appearance, but one thing remains unchanged: here it is a favorite street food

Balik-ekmek is the best balik–ekmek, simply fish with bread. The favorite delicacy of tourists is on the Galata Bridge in Istanbul, but in Turkey in all cities you can find specialized cafes and restaurants where fish with crusty bread will be skillfully cooked for you. It's just a business card of culinary Istanbul – once you taste it, you can become a follower of this dish, it's so delicious

Dondurma is an ice cream show. The master performs circus tricks with toffee – juggles cups, hides ice cream behind his back, gives you a grip and takes the cup away again — this is an obligatory part of the ritual to get the coveted ball of ice cream, very tasty and so inaccessible

Chorbasy is the best cream soup in Turkey. Pumpkin, tomato, shrimp, mushrooms, broccoli, peas and lentils are cooked — you can try a new one every day. This culinary masterpiece is unique in every establishment!

Salep is a hot milk drink, thick and sweet. It is prepared from salep flour obtained from the roots of the yathryshnik. The companions include milk, sugar, water, cinnamon, vanilla, orange or rose water for flavor.

Turkish tea does not need advertising. It is prepared in two-story kettles and drunk from thin glass cups-armuda, adding refined cubes to taste, stirring loudly with a beautiful spoon. Needless to say, Turkish tea is so special that any tourist will definitely take a pack or two with him to his homeland. By the way, tea can always be bought at Istanbul airports.

Turkish coffee is a tradition stronger than tea. Coffee is prepared here almost ritually, in an oriental way, in a turk on fire or sand. Served with cold water. And yes, real Turkish coffee can only be tasted in Turkey, it is especially appreciated here!

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April 08, 2024

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